Balanced Diet, Food Additives, Food Adulteration, Food Fortification


A diet is defined as the kinds of food on which a person or group lives.

Balanced Diet:

A balanced diet is one which contains all the proximate principles of food, minerals, and vitamins in due proportion and at the same time meeting the total energy requirements for maintaining health, vitality, and well-being of a person.

Principles of a balanced diet:

Protein: The amount should be 15-20% of the daily energy intake.
Fat: It should be 20-30 % of the daily energy intake.
Carbohydrate: 55-65 % of daily energy intake.


Dietary goals:

The dietary goals recommended by the various experts’ committees of WHO are as below:

1. Dietary fat should be 20-30 %.

2. Saturated fats– not more than 10 % of the total energy intake. Unsaturated vegetable oils to be substituted for the remaining saturated fat.

3. Less intake of refined carbohydrate. Carbohydrate-rich in natural fiber should be taken

4. Sources rich in energy such as fats and alcohol should be restricted.

5. Average salt intake, not more than 5 gm/day.

6. Daily protein intake 15-20 % of the energy.

7. Junk foods such as colas, ketchup to be reduced.

Food additives:

Additions of non-nutritious substances in small quantity to improve its appearance, flavor, texture or storage properties.

Coloring agents → saffron, turmeric.
Flavoring agents → vanilla essence
Sweeteners → saccharine
Preservatives → sorbic acid, sodium benzoate
Acidity imparting agents → citric acid

Food fortification:

It is a process whereby nutrients are added to foods to maintain or improve the quality of the diet of a group, a community or a population.

*Fluoridation of water as a preventive measure of dental caries.

*Iodization of salt for combating the problem of endemic goiter.

*Milk fortified with Vit A & D.

Principles of food fortification:

Vehicle (food) fortified must be a part of the regular diet by the population.

Added nutrients must be effective for low consumers.

The addition of nutrients should not cause any change in taste, smell, appearance, consistency.

It must be of low cost.

Food adulteration:

Addition of substances to food with an ill motive.

It is done in a variety of ways, such as mixing, substitution, abstraction, concealing the quality, putting up decomposed foods for sale, misbranding, the addition of toxicants.

Food adulteration:

Adulteration of food is injurious to health. People pay more money for low quality.

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